Metabolism, Enzyme, Diabetes Insulin

We know that diabetes is a disorder in which there is either deficiency or deficiency of insulin or insulin, resistance, which results in hyperglycemia and accordingly, we can have two types of diabetes: type, 1 and type 2 diabetes. Where type 1 is the insulin, dependent, type decimators and the type 2 is the non insulin, dependent, diabetes and type 1 insulin, uh type 1 diabetes, mellitus is treated by insulin. Only because you can see here the normally. There are two phases of insulin secretion in. In response to glucose or any other secretorgs, so the first phase is the release of the stored insulin, followed by the release of the synthesized insulin, but in type 1 diabetes mellitus. There is absolute deficiency of insulin, so you call it as insulin dependent, diabetes, mellitus and type 2. The phase one is absent, only phase two is present uh, the body can synthesize insulin in response to uh drugs, like insulin, religious and it is called non insulin, dependent type disorders, so insulin is used for treatment of type 1, diabetes, simulators and, in case of insulin, Resistance, we can use type 2, we can use insulin for treatment of type 2 diabetes, mellitus, and if we see the Music classification of insulin source wise, we can classify them as beef insulin, pork insulin or human insulin, which is prepared by dna, recombinant technology and based On the duration of action, we can classify insulin into ultrasound, acting short, acting intermediate acting longer thing.

If the duration fraction is three to five hours, it is ultra protecting and if it is five to eight hours, it is short acting and if it is eight to twelve hours, it is intermittent acting and almost 24 hours. We call it as long acting so this pencil in insulin aspect. These are examples for trash, attracting insulin, regular insulin, which is soluble crystalline, zinc insulin. It is an example of salt, acting insulin and nph incident that is neutral. Protamine has done in sodium. That is intermediate. Acting lean tension is also intermittent ultra length, insulin, insulin, glargin. These are examples of long active insulin. We can have also pre mixed insulin, where we can combine regular and nph insulin in the ratio of 30, 70 or 50, 50 or 25 75, so insulin how it acts. The mechanism of action of insulin, insulin, receptor, is a tyrosine kinase like a linked receptor, tyrosine kinase, linked receptor and, as we know, this tyrosine kinase link receptor follows two pathway, rash, wrap and jack start pathway, and here insulin follows the rash raft pathway and this insulin Receptor functions when two insulin receptors come together to form this heterotetramer uh. This is the beta subunit, and this is the alpha subunit, so beta alpha, alpha, beta heterotetramer form has to be there. Two insulin molecules will bind to these two receptors and there will be auto for phosphorylation of this tyrosine kinase unit. So this beta subunit is nothing but the tyrosine kinase unit, which will be autophosphorylated when two insulin molecules will bind and this phosphate will be transferred to rash, which is in this resting state will be linked to guanosine diphosphate gdp, and this phosphate is transferred to rash By means of grb 2 and then this gdp will be phosphorylated to gtp.

That means rise will be activated. Now this rash gtp can transfer one phosphate to rough, which we, which will follow a cascade of enzymes, so a raf will phosphorylate make make, will phosphorylate mapk mitogen activated protein kinase, so amiki is map. Kinase kinase and raph is map kinase kinase kinase, so this mapk will phosphorylate various transcription transcription factors which will regulate the gene transcription. So insulin regulates the gene transcription of a number of genes and what it does. It causes the synthesis and recruitment of glute. So on the cell membrane, uh glucose, as you know, this is water soluble molecule, so it requires a transporter. We call it as glute or glucose transporter, so glucose will bind to this glute and then this glute will transfer this glucose into the cell. So this is glucose molecule, so this synthetic this is a protein, so carrier protein. So this synthesis and recruitment of this glute on the cell membrane is done by insulin. So the genes for glute is a gene. Transcription of this glute will be regulated by insulin. Then there are mechanisms by which this glucose label can decrease. Glucose is stored. Glucose is stored as glycogen in liver and muscles, so the process of conversion of glucose to glycogen is glycogenesis and the glycogenesis requires a number of steps by enzymes, so enzymes are required and the enzymes are nothing but proteins. So all those proteins protein synthesis requires gene transcription, so insulin increases glycogenesis by regulating the transcription of genes involved in the enzymes required for glycogenesis.

Similarly, glycogenolysis is the process by which glycogen breaks down to glucose, so this is inhibitor, so it will this insulin, Music decreases or inhibits the gene transcription of enzymes involving glycogenolysis. Similarly, gluconeogenesis is a process by which, from non carbohydrate sources, glucose synthesized, non carbon resources, like amino acid to fatty acid, are converted to glucose by the process of gluconeogenesis. Again. This process also requires enzymes and insulin, inhibits the regulation of gene transcription and if the gene transcription of enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis. Similarly in the adipose tissue, insulin, insulin, inhibits lipolysis and favors the synthesis of triglycerides. So in the adipose tissue, the fatty acids are converted to triglycerides and inhibits, so this stimulates the lipogenesis, whereas inhibits lipolysis, that is, conversion of triglyceride to three fatty acid. So this is inhibited and Music. Three fatty acid, two triglyceride synthesis that is lipogenesis is stimulated, and it also increases the amino acid entry into muscles and theres a favors, the synthesis to proteins, and it stimulates the vascular, endothelial, lipoprotein lipage, thereby increasing the clearance of ldl and kylometres. So this is a one benefit with insulin, so these are all actions of insulin, so we can use insulin in treatment of type 1. Diabetes, mellitus and insulin is the drug of choice in case of gestational diabetes, that is diabetes during pregnancy and in type 2 diabetes simulators. As we have already discussed, that type 2 diabetes simulators can be caused by either relative deficiency of insulin or insulin resistance.

When there is insulin resistance, we can combine insulin with oral hypoglycemic agents and the drawback with insulin is it can cause hypoglycemia? So this is all about insulin.

What do you think?

Written by freotech


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