Louis convened an assembly of notables in december 1787.. Their deliberations brought no result, however, which is why louis decided to dissolve the assembly again. The king was then requested to convene the estate general to solve the pressing financial problems on november 19 1787. At a solemn parliamentary session, several speakers urged that the esta general be convened. The king replied evasively, after which he got into an argument with the duke d’orleans thereupon louis had his cousin banished from parliament. Slowly, more and more discussions erupted about how the country should be governed in the future. In order to pass financial reforms. The king convened the esta general in 1789.. The last convention of the esta general had been in 1614, but the king would not listen to the advice of his finance minister, jacques neke and procrastinated on making any headway to meet the demands made by the national assembly. A revolutionary assembly formed by the representatives of the third estate, which were the representatives of the commoners when louis finally presented his proposals for the reform of the state to the fully assembled esta general on june 23. 1789. He states as follows. Louis would accept the freedom of the press and the right of the estates to approve taxes and loans. At the same time, he hoped that the privileged classes would agree to the principle of equal tax treatment, but he also mentioned in a threatening tone that if the third estate insisted on a vote by head instead of by class, he would have the meeting dissolved by Force after finishing his speech, he ordered those present to part nobles and clerics obeyed, but the third estate, the commoners, denied the king’s legitimacy to adjourn the national assembly when louis returned to versailles.
He found his finance minister’s resignation letter on his desk. At the same time, an angry crowd appeared in front of the castle for the first time and poured into the courtyard and halls at the urgent request of the king, nekker felt compelled to reverse his resignation and on june 27 louis ordered the delegates from the first And second estates, the nobility and the clergy to join the national assembly. On the same day, however, he also gave the order to gather troops on the outskirts of the capital. The regiments rallied around paris on july 10 louis stated that the troops were there to protect him on july 11. He dismissed neker, and by doing so he provoked the third estate. On the afternoon of july 13th, the king and queen inspected foreign regiments that had recently returned to france. For what purpose the troops were drawn together is disputed by historians, but the parisian population believed the king had bad intentions and responded on july 14th by storming the bastille. At this point, louis was advised to leave versailles and take up the fight against the revolution away from the capital. However, the king declined and decided to stay and again called naker back to office. As a token of his goodwill, the king visited paris on july 17, 1789. By now, the new revolutionary municipal government of paris was established, louis met with them and accepted from them the tri colored cocarde, the ribbon cluster of the revolution.
On august 5 1789 the national assembly decided to abolish all feudal rights, followed by the declaration of human and civil rights on august 26, but the king refused to give these resolutions legal force through his signature when yet another military regiment was relocated to versailles. On september 14th, this trust grew again amongst the parisian people. On september 21, the king was asked by the national assembly to explain why the regiment had moved to versailles. On september 23, the regiment arrived at versailles with 1 100 infantry men at the beginning of october. Opulent banquets were held for the regiment. The reports of these banquets sparked outrage in paris, where hungry people were lining up for bread on october 4th speakers such as jean paul mara and george danton, called the people to arms on october 5 of that year. As the king set out to go, hunting a march by the people was held from paris to versailles, to bring the baker the baker’s wife and the baker’s son to paris, as the people assumed. The famine would end if the king were to reside in paris. The march would later be known as the march of the women of paris as the mob consisted of women of the common people, but also of men in dresses. The king was given the advice to make a stand and fire upon the nearing mob louis refused. When the mob arrived in versailles. The highly explosive situation was lulled by the commander of the guard, the marquis de lafayette, the mob decided to withdraw for the night in the middle of the night, the mob returned and stormed the palace through a gate which was left open.
There are indications that duke d’orleans, the king’s nephew and opponent was responsible for leaving the gates open, so the mob could enter the mob, entered the palace and killed the swiss guard. Their aim was to kill marian tuanet. The guard held up the mob long enough for marie antoinette to escape events now followed each other in rapid succession and the next day the family and the whole court left the palace of versailles for good. They took up residence in the pale de tuilerie in paris. From the moment louis xvi moved to paris. He was stripped of all his power. He was still allowed to run a splendid court, though, as this was in the interest of france’s prestige. Louis briefly regained his popularity with the people and could have used the momentum against the national assembly. He was advised to move to ruin in order to regain control of the nation. However, louis again didn’t follow the advice but decided to stay in paris. The national assembly needed money to end the chaos and eventually founded by confiscating the assets of the church. In anticipation of the gradual and orderly liquidation of the assets, a case was created that issued a signia paper money. That was, in fact a claim on the liquidation of the church’s properties. By putting too many asinia into circulation, the assembly caused hyperinflation, the church was restructured and the priests and bishops had to swear an oath of allegiance to the nation.
Monastic orders were abolished, the pope harshly condemned the events in france and the pious louis xvi tried to intervene on behalf of the church. Upon doing so, louis was threatened by an angry crowd. The people became more and more aggressive, stirred up by the slander written by the french press. When the king tried to leave the palace for a short trip, he was stopped by the armed masses and the royal carriage had to return. The king was now effectively a prisoner in the winter of 1790 to 1791 exhausted by the difficult position he found himself in louis conceived, the plan of escape in june of that year. Louis and his family fled incognito towards mohmedi, but between saint menehu and varen on argonne. They were exposed, stopped and returned to paris. The french press made generous use of the incident to stir up hatred for the king. On july 15, 1791. The national assembly issued a decree that louis xvi would remain king under a constitutional monarchy. The monarchy would be retained, but sovereignty would lay with a legislative assembly which would have to be elected by a voting system after elections were held. The legislative assembly took office, however, the assembly had no sympathy for the king voices were being heard in favor of a new republican constitution. On august 9, 1792, the parisian sans culotte overthrew the mayor and city council of paris and replaced it with a commun insurrectional. This was the first part of a violent coup d’etat.
On august 10, 1792, the palais de tuleri was stormed and looted, after which the king and his family were moved to the old tour du templa. The legislative assembly was forced to depose the king. Then it dissolved itself and a new constituent assembly named the national convention, was elected. The elections for the national convention were held under severe intimidation by the extremist, jacob and the jacob organized mass murders of prisoners to showcase their power and hoped to win the election through terror. They succeeded de geronda and jacob ban were left in the national convention as the only political groups, along with those who remained undecided in the medieval tour to dampla. The royal family was very closely guarded as well as being bullied and humiliated. The prisoners were not allowed to receive visitors or read, newspapers and writing kits were taken away, followed by scissors and knives. The imprisoned family consisted of the king, the queen, her sister in law elizabeth, their fourteen year old daughter, marie teresa and the seven year old dofen. The princess of lambal, who accompanied the family voluntarily in prison, was removed after some time and imprisoned in la force only to be maimed and murdered. Her head was put on a pike and placed in front of the temple to torment marie antoinette. This concludes part 2 of my 3 part series on louis the 16th. I hope you’ll join me next week for the final part, where we’ll discuss the trial and execution of louis xv.