We are going to see about the nucleic acids. Friends, we are going to see what are nucleic acids, who discovered nucleic acid and why they named it as nucleic acid types of nucleic acids, building blocks of nucleic acids, location and functions of nucleic acids, chromosomes genes and genomes. Lets start with the question: what is nucleic acid and its functions? Nucleic acid is an important class of macromolecules found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and viruses. The important functions of nucleic acids are storage and expression of genetic informations. Next, we are going to see who discovered nucleic acid in thousand eight hundred and sixty eight friedrich mesia isolated, a phosphorus containing macromolecular substance with acidic nature from puzzles obtained from discarded surgical bandages, which he named nuclean. In thousand eight hundred and eighty nine richard altman coined the term nucleic acid because of its acidic nature. Thus, the name nucleate acid comes from the fact that they were first isolated from the nucleus of the cell, with acidic properties, Music types of nucleic acid, the two main types of nucleic acids are rabonucleic, acid and deoxyribonucleic acid building blocks of nucleic acid. I told you: nucleic acids are macromolecules, which means nucleic acids are molecules composed of many smaller molecular units called nucleotides. So we can say a nucleotide is the basic building block of nucleic acids? Yes, next question consonants: what is a nucleotide nucleotide is an organic molecule. Consists of a pentose sugar molecule attached to a phosphate group and a nitrogen containing base in nucleic acids.
The individual nucleotides are joined by a phosphodiester bond to form a polymer called polynucleotide. The nucleic acid rna consists of one polynucleotide chain, whereas dna consists of two polynucleotide chains. We learned what is a nucleotide. Next, we are going to see about the three parts of a nucleotide at first we are going to see about the pentose sugar. A pentose is a monosaccharide which means simple sugar with five carbon atoms. The pentose sugar in rna is rabus, and the pentose sugar in dna is deoxyribose. The pintos sugar in rna as a hydroxyl, functional group at two prime position and are called rainbows, and hence the name ribonucleic acid, whereas dna lacks the hydroxyl group at two prime position. Instead, as a hydrogen, atom at two prime position ends the name deoxyribonucleic acid. The term deoxy refers to the fact that there is no oxygen attached to the two prime position. This is the main difference between rna and dna. Next, we are going to see about phosphate group. All nucleotides are composed of a phosphate moiety containing up to three phosphate groups. You should note one important point here that us, the acidic character of nucleotides is due to the presence of this phosphate group. Next, we are going to say about nitrogen bases: nitrogen bases are nitrogen, containing organic ring compounds. There are two types of nitrogen bases: purines and pyrimidines. The purine ring structure is composed of six member and five member aromatic rings.
There are two types of purines found in the nucleic acid: the two purines are adenine and guanine pyrimidine. The pyrimidine ring structure is a six member aromatic ring, the two pyrimidine bases commonly found in dna or thymine and cytosine, but in rna the thymine is replaced by uracil and the two pyrimidine bases commonly found in rna are uracil and cytosine. Uracil is similar to thymine, but lacks the methyl group at the carbon 5 position. The aromatic nature of the rings that is flatness is important in the organization of bases within the helix, which allows the bases to stack uniformly within the helix. This stacking protect the chemical identity of the bases we learned, what is a nucleotide and what are all the parts of a nucleotide? We can also define nucleotide as nucleotides or organic molecules, consisting of a nucleoside and a phosphate lets see what is a nucleoside. A nucleoside is a compound that consists of a purine or pyrimidine base, combined with deoxyribose or ribose. The main difference between nucleoside and nucleotide is the presence of the phosphate group nitrogenous base plus pentose sugar is the nucleoside. Nucleoside plus phosphate is the nucleotide. Next, we are going to see about dna. Dna is a polynucleotide which is the hereditary material in all living organisms. The information in dna is stored as a code made up of four chemical bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine and timing. You may ask me: where is dna found in a cell? We all know that there are two types of cells, prokaryotic and eukaryotic at first well, see about the dna in eukaryotic cells in eukaryotes.
Dna is found inside a special area of the cell called the nucleus. The dna found in the cells nucleus are called as nuclear dna humans and other complex organisms have a small amount of dna in the mitochondria, which is known as mitochondrial dna chloroplast dna chloroplast organelles that carry out photosynthesis in plant cells also have dna called chloroplast dna, Which is also called as plastoso. Next, we are going to see about the dna in the prokaryotic cells in prokaryotes. The dna is mostly located in a central part of the cell called the nucleoid. This dna is known as chromosomal dna. Many prokaryotes also contain small circular dna molecules called plasmids apart from prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Viruses also contain genetic material lets, see the location of viral genetic material. Most viruses have either rna or dna as their genetic material, which is enclosed within a protein coat or capsid. Next. Well see what is a chromosome? The human body contains approximately 100 trillion cells inside each cell. There is a nucleus and dna is found inside the nucleus, each dna molecule, which is a long thread like structure tightly coiled many times around proteins called histones. This packaged form of the dna is called a chromosome in humans. Each cell normally contains 23 pairs or 46 chromosomes, but human, sperm and egg cells contain only 23 chromosomes. Mature red blood cells have no nucleus, so they have no chromosomes. Each chromosome contains hundreds to thousands of genes.
Genes are arranged one after another on chromosomes. You should note one important point here that us each chromosome is one pair of very long. Dna molecule next well see what is a g. A gene is a basic unit of heredity, or we can say a gene is a sequence of nucleotides in dna or rna that encodes the synthesis of a gene product either rna or protein, that is a gene, is a packet of information coding generally for a protein Or make rnas that have some specific function, a gene could be as short as a few hundred base pass, or as long as many thousands. Next, we are going to see what is a genome. A genome is an organisms. Complete set of dna or a genome is an organisms complete set of genetic instructions or informations. The human genome contains approximately 3 billion base pass reside in the 23 pass of chromosomes functions of dna in all living things. Dna is essential for inheritance coding for proteins and providing instruction for life and its process. Next, we are going to see about rna. Rna is a single standard, macromolecule made of ribonucleotides, which means it contains ribose as its pentose sugar and the pyrimidine eurasia. Instead of thymine functions of rna, the primary function of rna is to create proteins by our translation. The three main types of rna directly involved in protein synthesis are messenger. Rna, transfer, rna and ribosomal rna in some viruses. Rna carries genetic information.
Rna can also act as enzymes called ribozymes. Rna plays important role in regulating cellular processes from cell division. Differentiation and growth to cell aging and death befits in certain rna have been implicated in a number of human diseases, for example heart disease, stroke, etc. Here we must note one important point: that is some rna molecules are not translated into proteins, but rather perform a wide range of direct genetic regulatory functions. Finally, we are going to say what is the central dogma of molecular biology. The central dogma of molecular biology is an explanation of the flow of genetic information within a biological system that is, rna, carries the information from dna in the nucleus to a ribosome in the cytoplasm and then helps assemble the protein. It is often stated, as dna makes, rna and rna makes protein discovering the sequence of events was a major milestone in molecular biology. It is called the central dogma of molecular biology. I am concluding this video here, see you soon in my next video. Thank you.