Each chromosome contains what chromosome contains. What contains dna? Yes, proteins, and it is a dna that controls all the activities of our cell. It also has information to pass it to next generation. That means the information of our parents. Dna has come to us, so dna has information to pass from parents to offspring, and dna also can control our cells activity. So this is what we learned about nucleus last class now well continue from there next map. Yes, write this down cell bond, so cell wall is there to protect the cells cell wall. Is there to protect the cells, it is found surrounding the nuclear membrane. Sorry, cell membrane cell bond is found surrounding cell membrane, the cells and it surrounds cell membrane, its around cell membrane, but cell bone is present for or it is present in plant cells cell. What is present in plant cells, then bacterial cells and fungi cells, plant cell bacterial cell and fungi cells, but it is absent. Cell wall is not present in animal cell cell wall is absent in animal cell cell wall is absent in animal cell, so thats. What this image shows the image here shows. So you can see this is a bacterial cell. Bacterial cell has a cell wall, they have bacterial cell wall and that surrounds the plasma membrane, plasma, membrane or cell membrane. So there is plasma membrane here surrounding that only cell wall is present. Similarly, fungi also has cell wall fungal cells also have cell wall surrounding the cell membrane.
Then there is a plant cell plus a bacterial cell as well as plant cell. They have got cell wall, whereas animal cells will not have cell walls. Now in plant cells in plant cells cell wall is made up of cellulose plant cells. A cell wall is made of cellulose, so plant cell wall is made of cellulose, cellulose and cell wall. As you have learned last class, when a plant cell is put in when a plant cell is put in hypotonic solution now this is plant cell. This is a continuation of last class. What im telling, if a plant cell, if a plant cell is put inside hypotonic solution, hypo hypo means very dilute liquid. That is the meaning of hypo hypotonic solution. Then what will happen if it is put in hypotonic solution? What will happen if nucleus will bulge when we get in size? Now? Yes correct, so you know that uh there are so many cell organs present inside the cell nucleus and mitochondria like that, so many structures are there inside. They are together called as cell organelles. So inside the cell there is cell organelles and the liquid part of the cell is called cytoplasm. All these are surrounded by membrane. That membrane is called cell membrane, so the cell membrane is present in and inside the cell membrane, within the cell membrane, you can find nucleus and other uh cell organelles solution when you put it into hypotenuse solution since hypo means very diluted solution.
That means water content is more in the solution than the cell, so all the water will get inside the cell. That is what happens all the water from the hypotonic solution liquid will get inside the cell. This will make the cell bulge, so it will make the cell to bulge cell will become bulged like this means they will become. Swollen cell will become swollen, so the cell, when it is put in hypotonic solution cell, will bulge or you can say cell will become swollen. Then what happens is it will not burst cell will not burst even though it bulges, but cell will not burst. It will not burst like it will not burst, who gave it protection who gave a cell protection cell wall? Yes. So when there is a pressure towards the cell wall, then the cell will put the back pressure cell will push backside so because of this, the cell will be protected. It will not burst thats why we can say cell wall. One more benefit is that cell wall gives rigidity. The meaning of the word rigidity is that the cell will not burst, it will say strong thats, the meaning of rigidity, so cell wall gives rigidity and turgidity rigidity and turgidity tertiary means after it gets all the water. Still it is able to withstand the pressure rigidity means cell remains strong, so that is the meaning. Rigid rigid means strong surgeon means after getting in water, it stays bulge once but not break, but not break or but not versus nucleus, as nucleus has the nucleus, which is there.
It is surrounded by a double bond membrane, but full nucleus is not surrounded. Nucleus has got pores also, so there is nuclear membrane, double layered nuclear membrane like this surrounded surrounding the nucleus, so this is nuclear membrane and there is nuclear pole. This is nuclear pore. Why this nuclear pore is there, because there are some things which is present inside the nucleus, which has to come out which has to come out, so it is nuclear pore. Is there to transport the materials from the nucleus outside to cytoplasm that in higher classes you will study about rna? Rna is ribonucleic acid, that is another nucleic acid and some proteins. They all come from nucleus outside to the cytoplasm. So if they have to come out, there should be old here, thats why nuclear membrane is double layered only but completely it is not surrounding the nucleus. Nuclear pore is also present, so nucleus has double a nuclear membrane, and nuclear membrane has pores to allow materials from inside nucleus to cytoplasm. Nucleus contains chromosomes and it contains dna. Protein dna stands for deoxyribonucleic acid. It contains information for making of cell and also activities inside the cell. If the cell is a non dividing, that means it is young cell. Then they have chromatin material, chromatin material means they are like this thread like, but if the nucleus is present in a dividing cell, then the new chromatin material will be like this. This is called chromosomes.
That is if it is a mature cell chromosome is there. Young cell means chromatin thread when the cell is about to divide the chromatin material becomes chromosomes next, what youre going to learn is two terms: are there one is called prokaryotic cells and others eukaryotic cells. Well, first take a look at prokaryotic cells. The simple meaning of these two terms is pro means. Primitive chrome is very old, primitive type of nucleus old, whereas eukaryotic means new new type of nucleus. So all the bacterial cells, they are called prokaryotic cells, whereas plant cell animal cell fungicides are called eukaryotic now why it is called old, nucleus and white is called new type of nucleuses. All the nucleus did not have nuclear membrane, like you see in the bacterial cell. Here it does not have a nuclear membrane; only the genetic material is there genes is there here, dna is there, but it is not surrounded by nuclear membrane. Another thing is that there is no membrane bound cell organelle. You cant see mitochondria here, chloroblast lysosome, like that cell organisms are not there in a bacterial cell thats why they are called primitive, primitive means old, meaning of carrio is nucleus, whereas eukaryotic cell, we write this down prokaryotic cell next heading prokaryotic cells in that pro means Primitive primitive is older and the meaning of karyo carry on is nucleus, so those who have primitive nucleus, they are called as prokaryotic cells. Now this is the bacteria.
If this is the bacterial cell, they have cell wall. Okay, they have cell wall, they have cell membrane. Everything is there, but they dont have nuclear membrane, see the genetic material it is. This is genetic material, genetic material thread, the genetic material does not have nuclear membrane, so prokaryotic cell has no nuclear membrane, write it down, they have no nuclear membrane and they also have no membrane bound cell organelles membrane. Boundary means membrane surrounding thats, a many membrane bound. They dont have membrane bound cell organelles. They dont have membrane bound cell organelles, like mitochondria chloroplast ribosomes, like things are not senior, so that is why its called as prokaryotic cells. Now we will come to eukaryotic cells, so the eukaryotic cells you can see here. Eukaryotic cells have double balled nuclear membrane, so the genetic material is surrounded by nuclear membrane. It is also having other membrane boundary cell organelles, like endoplaspin mitochondria lysosome vacuole golgi apparatus like that. So many membrane bound membrane, because each cell organelle has membrane so eukaryotic cells. They have membrane bound cell organelles, whereas prokaryotic cells they dont. Have it so example of prokaryotic cell is bacteria now coming to eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotic cells example of eukaryotic cell is fungi cells plant cell animal cell. All these cells have true nucleus, meaning of you. You means true carry on means, nucleus, like, for example, im drawing drawing here, animal cell im, drawing an animal cell, so the animal cell they have nucleus nucleus is surrounded by nuclear membrane.
They have nuclear membrane, see an animal cell has nuclear membrane. It also has membrane bound cell organs, like mitochondria, then lysosomes like that they have got membrane, bound cell organs, membrane, bound cell modulus. So all the eukaryotic cells have nuclear membrane also, so they have a true nucleus, so this inside this whole thing is called nucleus. They also have got membrane bound cell organelles, which prokaryotic cells dont, have not a down to this area. Cheeks. Are there no on either side of the tongue? The sides of your cheeks that you have to just scrape it with some toothpick or any ice cream ice cream rod. You can smoothly you just scrape. It then take little water inside the glass slide and you wrap that toothpick inside this. When you keep under the microscope, you will see cells which are like this. Irregular shaped almost triangular shape and since it is from our cheeks thats why they are animal cells, they dont have cell wall, you can see nucleus and then you can see cytoplasm so to get color on this. You can use any of the stains. You can use. Methylene, blue stain or saffron and stain you can use it so thats. What this is what you see. So this is what you see in under the microscope under the microscope. You can see our cheek cells are like this and it will not have a cell wall because its an animal cell, but you can see nucleus, then we can see cytoplasm.
You cannot prokaryotic cell prokaryotic cell structure, it has cell wall and it has got plasma membrane. Ribosomes, but you cant see any other kind of cell organelle. Now we can name this region that you can take down the region of prokaryotic cell. You can take down this. The region of prokaryotic cell with genetic material with the genetic material is called, is called nucleoid n. U c, l e o, i d, because you cannot call it as nucleus nucleus. If you have to call means nuclear membrane should be there, but bacterial cell they dont have nuclear membrane, so this region is called nucleoid region. In fact they dont have nuclear membrane. Nuclear region contains nucleic acids or genetic material. We can write this region in bacterial cell is called nucleoid organisms whose cell do not have nuclear membrane are called prokaryotes, for example, bacteria organisms, whose cell has nuclear membrane. They are called eukaryotes, so prokaryotic cell do not have membrane bound cell organelles, also, but membrane bound. Cellulose is present in eukaryotic cell now. If it is a photosynthetic bacteria, now some bacterias, they are photosynthesis. Photosynthetic, then some bacteria with help of sunlight. They can make their own food minerals. They can take from the place where they grow. Like soil bacteria, as you know, so the soil, what minerals are there that they will take and using the sunlight? They can make food. So there are some photosynthetic bacteria that them, but they need chlorophyll if, in case of plants means chlorophyll is present in cell organelles called chloroplast.
This is chloroplast that is in case of plant cell chloroplast is present, but such kind of membrane bouncing is not there. In bacteria – and they only have some bags some bag, like structures are there which has inside chlorophyll, they have chlorophyll so, for example, photosynthetic bacteria they have chlorophyll in membranous, vesicles vesicles means bags, but not in cell organelle plastid, that is present in eukaryotic cell, so prokaryotic Cell, they will not have any kinds of cell organelles, they dont have cell organelles. Now this is the difference between prokaryotic cell and eukaryotic cell. In textbook this is from textbook, so prokaryotic cells – you can pixel size of prokaryotic cell is very small, say one to ten micrometer one to ten micrometer one micrometer means ten is power, minus six meters that makes small little micrometer letters. The nuclear region is known as what nuclear agent nuclear region is known as nucleoid, and you can write about the nucleic acids. Also, nucleic acids do not have do not have nuclear membrane. Nucleic acids do not have nuclear membrane. Nucleic acids means dna rna. They are all called nucleic acids. It also means genetic material, so genetic material, they are not surrounded by any nuclear membrane, so that region is called nucleoid now in case of eukaryotes. Nuclear region is well defined and it is surrounded by nuclear membrane. The next difference, prokaryotes have only one chromosome, they have only one chromosome or a single chromosome see.
This is how the bacteria is now bacteria. It starts like this. Chromosome material starts like this, and they just coin like this, so only one is there, whereas if you take a eukaryotic cell, they have nucleus, each nucleus has one two: three many chromosomes will be there, so that is the difference if it is case of prokaryotes, only Single chromosome eukaryotes, they have more than one chromosome. They are more than one chromosome last difference membrane, bound cell organelles are absent in case of prokaryotes. Now, like that, we have to write about eukaryotes. What will you write here for the point in eukaryotes membrane? Bound syllogines are present: yes, like the tissue right membrane, bound cell organelles are present, whatever is written in the other side. That was opposite right here.