For the first time, and in case you have no idea what crispr is, then this video is just for you. So lets start. We all know dna its the recipe to each and every person and every living thing its. What makes us unique dna carries information or instructions, as you will that define our characteristics such as our eye color, but also things like how we develop. For example, if were going to get diabetes, when were some arbitrary age like 40. in the early years of genetic engineering, scientists would blast plants and animals with radiation to change their dna information. These random mutations of the genetic material would, by chance alter some characteristic that the scientists were interested in life. Saving medicines such as insulin and some hormones are produced by genetically engineered life. We can genetically modify plants to be disease resistant animals to produce more meat and many other things. Nevertheless, genetic engineering has always been expensive thats, where crispr comes in clustered regularly. Interspaced short palindromic repeats the crisper technology, significantly reduced the cost of genetic engineering and the equipments and resources required to do it. The technology is based on a naturally occurring process in the body where protein cells, known as cas9, will take a segment of dna code and clone it. Cas9 will search for that segment and each match that it finds elsewhere. It will cut out. It removes the information that dna segment holds. Crispr has already been used successfully to eliminate hiv cells in rats.
Developments to crispr could be used to treat cancer and in china its already been used to create genetically modified babies as part of the genes in space 2018. Competition, a team of high school students worked with astronauts christina and nick hague on board the iss to look at double strand brakes or dsbs. For short, dsps are a type of dna damage where the double helix is broken. To do this, they flew an organism into space on the iss, where its dna sequence was edited via the crispr technology. Crispr purposely inflicted breaks in the dna of that organism and the reason that they did it was that astronauts may be at risk of similar, harmful dna damage caused by ionizing radiation in space. Such dna damage can lead to cancer and other detrimental health effects and its really important that we can address these issues in long duration. Space travel if we want to go to mars the crispr method, mimic genetic damage caused by cosmic radiation, and this allowed the researchers to achieve precisely controlled cuts in very specific locations of the dna sequence, but also this eradicated the risks caused by accidental damage. This was the first time ever. It was done in space. So once these dsps were created, the research looked at how the dna would repair itself and here on earth. There are two ways that dna will repair itself: understanding how the repair mechanisms work in space and if one type of repair is more accurate than the other offers useful insights into whether or not we can encourage one type happening over the other.
This can offer us safeguards for future long term space missions to mars. Lastly, the astronauts were able to sequence the dna, in other words, they were able to read the genetic information contained on the dna. This was all done in microgravity conditions on the international space station, whilst more research is needed on the investigations of dna repair and space. This was the first time that crispr has been used successfully in space. I am so looking forward to see what crispr has in store for us. It would be amazing if one day we could just edit our jeans and, for example, breathe in space without a spacesuit thats all for this weeks, video ill leave the publication in the description box below.