In exploring mars, on july 30, 2020 nasa launched the rover perseverance to mars. The 2.7 billion us dollars probe carry sophisticated instruments for searching for life and will collect samples of marss core before returning to earth. It also returned to mars with a piece of a martian meteorite that fell to earth 1. 000 years ago. Perseverance took seven months and traveled more than 480 million kilometers to reach mars. On february 18., a week before perseverances departure. On july 23, 2020 china launched its first mars probe tien wen won. It entered a mars orbit on february 10, 2021 after traveling for 202 days and landing. Its goal is to search for evidence of current and past life and assess the planets environment. On may 15 2021, the rover jubrong carried by tienwen won, landed in the southern pre selected landing zone of the utopia planitia, making china the second country globally after the us to deploy a rover on mars beijing announced in july 2021 that it aims to conduct the First, manned spacecraft, mars exploration in 2033. It plans to join hands with russia to create a road map for building an international research station on the moon to guide russian and chinese cooperation and development in space. Beijing also announced that before manned spacecraft exploration, china would conduct robotic mars exploration, mars, based site visits and the construction of in situ resource utilization systems. It is expected that by the end of 2030, there will also be an unmanned round trip mission to collect soil samples from mars for the u.
s, china is the second communist country that intends to compete with it. The u.s began launching a rover as early as august 1975 and landed on mars for the first time. In 1976., later in 1975, nasa launched a second mars rover. The two earliest successful explorations together sent back to earth tens of thousands of high resolution photographs of mars. During that time, the former soviet union was engaged in a space race with the us it aimed for mars exploration, but repeatedly failed until the 1980s. The soviet union conducted two last mars missions before its collapse. In 1988, the first mars mission was lost on route and the second was lost shortly after entering orbit around mars. The soviet union was never able to land on mars and its orbital observations of mars were not sustained either. The massive resources devoted to the space race by the soviet union also contributed to its demise. After the collapse of the soviet union, the race to mars seems to have lost its point because of the astronomical costs. The us mars exploration program at one time slowed down, but it continued to develop. Nonetheless, from 1976. Until today, nasa has developed and launched nine probes that have successfully landed on mars and carried out exploration missions among them the spirit and opportunity rovers arrived on mars in 2004 and discovered that mars once had liquid water on it. In 2011, the u.s launched the curiosity rover, which landed on mars on august 6 2012 and discovered that the landing site gale crater, was once at lake billions of years ago and may have supported microbial survival.
Curiosity is still in operation. In 2018, the us launched the insight rover, which first detected earthquakes on mars on april 6 2019 and is still in operation. In addition to u.s and china, the united arab emirates in india have joined as new members of mars exploration, the presidency of donald trump. He explicitly supported the exploration of mars and proposed a manned landing program. Some analysts believe that trump saw the chinese communist partys ambitions in space and specifically established the us space force. His administration implemented the space race strategy again with the intention of dragging down the chinese communist regime, while at the same time making efforts to tighten the high technology blockade against the communist regime. Meanwhile, in 2020, the ccp had already failed at least four public space launches. Currently, there are three movable fellows on mars: chinas zhu rang and the uss perseverance and curiosity. In addition, there is another fellow that has no legs and cannot run, which is the inside mars. Rover of the us lets compare chinas rover with nasas perseverance, who is more advanced, chinas, mars exploration mission. Chief, said, frankly, in response to this question. There was no comparison. He described the jurong rover as having exceeded the us rovers opportunity and spirit in all aspects, but curiosity and perseverance. The rovers of the mars 2020 program are way ahead. He said we succeeded, but we still have a gap and the gap is not even small. In some aspects, we all know the parameters related to the perseverance, and we are clear in our hearts when we compare this, this gap can be reflected in the landing tonnage.
Rover scale, isotope nuclear batteries and other detailed breakdown. Technical areas in terms of appearance perseverance is not very different from the ju wrong mars rover with a length like a small family car and a width and height similar to a small rv. However, while perseverance weighs more than one ton and has a sophisticated design, the chinese rover is only 240 kilograms. The aerial crane landing scheme was adopted for the perseverance which has low requirements on the ground surface and is technically complex. The chinese jurong adopted the most widely used. Reverse thrust, hovering landing scheme which is technically safe but has high requirements on the terrain. The slight impact at the moment of landing will impact the precision instruments. Perseverance also carried the ingenuity. The first small helicopter built to fly in an extraterrestrial environment. What has the u.s perseverance rover done in the six months since it landed on mars? It has done two most remarkable things. First perseverance took the mars mission star performer ingenuity out of its belly, assembled it and flew it through the thin martian atmosphere. Music ingenuity made its first flight on april 19 and completed its 12th flight a few days ago, since separating from the perseverance ingenuity has spent most of its time flying next to the perseverance. It takes aerial footage of the perseverance at work and sends it to engineers on earth Music. It also photographs the martian landscape from many different angles, to create a three dimensional map of the planet.
Another remarkable thing the perseverance accomplished was to produce oxygen on mars for the first time, moxie a machine that works like a tree and absorbs carbon dioxide from mars thin atmosphere and breaks it down into oxygen and carbon monoxide. The success of this experiment gives scientists confidence that in the future, when humans land on an alien planet, they can use this method to create the oxygen that supplies humans. In the meantime, chinese officials have released much information about tian wen won and the jurong rover to the chinese public and overseas through national tv stations and other media. For example, they have released the update that the travel distance of the jubrong mars rover has exceeded more than one thousand meters or over three thousand feet. However, a hitch has made chinas national celebration a bit of a bummer on may 15. The day the tian, when one rover landed on mars beijing released a 2.5 minute video showing the landing process of tianwen won in animation. However, chinese netizens found that the shots, images and editing of the official animation were similar to the animated footage of the curiosity mission launched by nasa in 2011. about 9 to 12. Seconds of footage of parachute deployment appears to have been taken directly from nasas decade. Old curiosity, cg animation, the footage of the instruments deployed after landing is from nasas phoenix rover which landed on mars. In 2008. The video has been circulated on the chinese internet somewhat undermining the patriotic or party fervor.
That beijing had hoped to fuel in response to beijings display of space ambitions, paul j saunders, a senior fellow for u.s foreign policy, told voice of america that space systems are integral to u.s national security because they can provide early warning of missile launches as well as Military communications and data on time and location such data is an integral part of modern networked military power. While escalating competition appears to be weakening the foundation for space cooperation, the us should continue to offer peaceful cooperation in u.s space activities to china and russia, while questioning both chinese and russian space activities. Major lean zovitzki, a serving u.s air force intelligence officer said in an op ed in defense, news back in june 2020 that china is determined to supplant the us, as the dominant power in space beijings norm is to treat space as a military domain and is investing Heavily in space infrastructure designed to ensure economic and military superiority, dr mir sadette was previously director of policy at the u.s national security council. In a june 29 speech at the institute of world politics, sadat also expressed concern about chinas recent space operations. Sedat argued that the space competition between washington and beijing is not about the competition between the us and chinese cultures and political systems. It is about which countries, entrepreneurs and the economy will benefit and which countries people will benefit. As a member of the global world, the us wants all of humanity to benefit.
That is, unfortunately, not the way the chinese look at the world. They look at it as to chinese benefit before everybody else, i would say. Yes, the us has an entrepreneurial mindset as well, but we have pretty much a hey lets. Make everybody rich in the process. Mindset not that we want to hurt anybody else, and so the discussion then becomes chinas. Mars exploration has garnered much praise. Will there be a negative impact from such a costly race to mars? At a time when china is in a major economic downturn, will it lead to the same fate as a collapse of the soviet union? The mars probe tien, one one launched by china, was named after the work by chu yuan, a famous poet of the state of chu during the warring states period. When he saw that the state of chu was about to be destroyed out of anxiety and despair, he wrote a series of poems, including tianwen, according to the traditional chinese concepts that are labeled as superstitions by the ccp. The meaning of tian wen is not very promising. Music, you missed the most important thing: perseverance, Music, on the surface of mars, ready to begin seeking.